The two names were switched over the centuries: the island became Puerto Rico and its capital San Juan. This sense of uniqueness also shapes their migrant experience and relationship with other ethnoracial groups in the United States.
The United States anglicized the name to "Porto Rico" when it occupied the island in 1898 after the Spanish-American War. Puerto Ricans are a Caribbean people who regard themselves as citizens of a distinctive island nation in spite of their colonial condition and U. However, this cultural nationalism coexists with a desire for association with the United States as a state or in the current semiautonomous commonwealth status. Puerto Rico is the easternmost and smallest of the Greater Antilles, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Basin to the south. It was thus a valuable acquisition for European powers and the United States. Navy has used its offshore islands for military maneuvers that have damaged their ecology, economy, and quality of life.
Chinese labor was introduced in the nineteenth century, and immigrants came from Andalusia, Catalonia, the Basque provinces, Galicia, and the Canary Islands.
Threatened by Latin America's nineteenth century revolutions, Spain facilitated immigration through economic incentives, attracting other nationalities as loyalists fled republican uprisings. occupation increased the American presence, and the 1959 revolution in Cuba brought an estimated 23,000 Cubans.
The Spanish word huracán originated from the Taíno juracán, the sacred name for this phenomenon.
Spain turned Puerto Rico into a military stronghold.
African speech contributed words and also influenced phonology, syntax, and prosody. officials disdained Puerto Rican Spanish as an unintelligible "patois" that had to be eradicated; they also believed that by learning English, Puerto Ricans would be socialized into "American values." The U. government imposed educational policies prescribing schooling in English through the first half of the twentieth century; language became part of the long-standing struggles over Puerto Rico's culture and colonial condition.
Language is a significant cultural marker of national identity for a people whose culture has always been under siege because of colonialism. Although "English-only" policies were abrogated after the establishment of the commonwealth in 1952, debates about language have intensified.
The Taínos, the indigenous people, called the island Boriquén Tierra del alto señor ("Land of the Noble Lord").
In 1508, the Spanish granted settlement rights to Juan Ponce de León, who established a settlement at Caparra and became the first governor.
In 1519 Caparra had to be relocated to a nearby coastal islet with a healthier environment; it was renamed Puerto Rico ("Rich Port") for its harbor, among the world's best natural bays.
But many fled into the highlands or intermarried: Spanish immigration to the island was mostly male and interracial relations less stigmatizing than among Anglo settlers.
The contemporary revival of Taíno identity is partially based on the survival of Taíno highland communities.